10.5061/DRYAD.VR954
Button, David J.
University of Bristol
Department of Earth Sciences
Barrett, Paul M.
Department of Earth Sciences
Rayfield, Emily J.
University of Bristol
Data from: Comparative cranial myology and biomechanics of Plateosaurus
and Camarasaurus and evolution of the sauropod feeding apparatus
Dryad
dataset
2017
Plateosaurus
biomechanics
Camarasaurus
finite element analysis
Palaeontology
biomechanics
Jurassic
Triassic
Finite-Element Analysis
Sauropoda
Sauropodomorpha
virtual reconstruction
2017-09-16T00:00:00Z
en
https://doi.org/10.1111/pala.12266
2128281267 bytes
1
CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0) Public Domain Dedication
Sauropodomorpha represents an important group of Mesozoic megaherbivores,
and includes the largest terrestrial animals ever known. It was the first
dinosaur group to become abundant and widespread, and its members formed a
significant component of terrestrial ecosystems from the Late Triassic
until the end of the Cretaceous. Both of these factors have been explained
by their adoption of herbivory, but understanding the evolution of
sauropodomorph feeding has been hampered by the scarcity of biomechanical
studies. To address this, the jaw adductor musculature of the basal
sauropodomorph Plateosaurus and the sauropod Camarasaurus have been
reconstructed. These reconstructions provide boundary conditions for
finite element models to assess differences in structural performance
between the two taxa. Results demonstrate that Camarasaurus was capable of
much greater bite forces than Plateosaurus, due to greater relative
adductor muscle mass and shape changes to the mandible. The skull and
mandible of Camarasaurus are also ‘stronger’ under static biting. The
Plateosaurus mandible appears to compromise structural efficiency and
force transmission in order to maintain relatively high jaw closure speed.
This supports suggestions of facultative omnivory in basal sauropodomorph
taxa. The expanded mandibular symphysis and ‘lateral plates’ of sauropods
each lead to greater overall craniomandibular robustness, and may have
been especially important in accommodating forces related to asymmetric
loading. The functional roles of these characters, and observed general
shape changes in increasing skull robustness, are consistent with
hypotheses linking bulk-herbivory with the origin of Sauropoda and the
evolution of gigantism.
Supporting InformationSupporting information for "Comparative cranial
myology and biomechanics of Plateosaurus and Camarasaurus and evolution of
the sauropod feeding apparatus". Includes additional details and
views of the osteological and myological virtual reconstructions and
additional finite-element modelling results.Plateosaurus cranium
modelModel of the cranium of Plateosaurus produced for this
study.platskull.stlPlateosaurus mandible modelModel of the mandible of
Plateosaurus produced for this studyplatmand.stlCamarasaurus skull
modelModel of the skull of Camarasaurus produced for this
studycamskull.stlCamarasaurus mandible modelModel of the mandible of
Camarasaurus produced for this studycammand.stlPlateosaurus anterior
biteAbaqus input file of the finite element model of the cranium of
Plateosaurus, simulating a bilateral bite at the 4 anteriormost
teeth.plateosaurus_ant4.inpPlateosaurus middle biteAbaqus input file of
the finite element model of the cranium of Plateosaurus, simulating a
bilateral bite at the 4 middle teeth.plateosaurus_mid4.inpPlateosaurus
posterior biteAbaqus input file of the finite element model of the cranium
of Plateosaurus, loaded to replicate a static bite at the posteriormost
four teeth.plateosaurus_post4.inpPlateosaurus dentineAbaqus input file of
a finite element model of the cranium of Plateosaurus, with the material
properties of dentine assigned to the teeth. This was used in the
sensitivity analyses testing the influence of tooth material properties on
observed results.plateosaurus_dentine.inpPlateosaurus enamelAbaqus input
file of a finite element model of the cranium of Plateosaurus, with the
material properties of enamel assigned to the teeth. This formed part of
the sensitivity analyses testing the influence of tooth material
properties on results.plateosaurus_enamel.inpPlateosaurus mandible
anterior biteAbaqus input file of a finite element model of the mandible
of Plateosaurus, simulating a bilateral bite at the anteriormost four
teeth.plateosaurus_mandible_ant4.inpPlateosaurus mandible middle
biteAbaqus input file of a finite element model of the mandible of
Plateosaurus, simulating a bilateral bite at the middle four
teeth.plateosaurus_mandible_mid4.inpPlateosaurus mandible posterior
biteAbaqus input file of a finite element model of the mandible of
Plateosaurus, simulating a bilateral bite at the posterior four
teeth.plateosaurus_mandible_post4.inpPlateosaurus mandible dentineAbaqus
input file of a finite element model of the mandible of Plateosaurus, with
the material properties of dentine assigned to the teeth. This formed part
of the sensitivity analyses testing the influence of the material
properties of teeth on the
results.plateosaurus_mandible_dentine.inpPlateosaurus mandible
enamelAbaqus input file of a finite element model of the mandible of
Plateosaurus, with the material properties of enamel assigned to the
teeth. This formed part of the sensitivity analyses testing the influence
of material properties of the teeth on
results.plateosaurus_mandible_enamel.inpPlateosaurus mandible unilateral
anterior biteAbaqus input file of a finite element model of the mandible
of Plateosaurus, simulating an unilateral bite at the anterior biting
position.plat_mand_unilateral_ant.inpPlateosaurus mandible unilateral
middle biteAbaqus input file of a finite element model of the mandible of
Plateosaurus, simulating a unilateral bite at the middle biting
position.plat_mand_unilateral_mid.inpPlateosaurus mandible unilateral
posterior biteAbaqus input file of a finite element model of the mandible
of Plateosaurus, simulating an unilateral bite at the posterior biting
position.plat_mand_unilateral_post.inpPlateosaurus scaled anterior
biteAbaqus input file of a finite element model of the cranium of
Plateosaurus, simulating a bite at the anteriormost four teeth. Muscle
forces have been scaled so that the total applied force/surface area
equals that of Camarasaurus (the "structural
comparison").plateosaurus_scaled_ant4.inpPlateosaurus scaled middle
biteAbaqus input file of a finite element model of the cranium of
Plateosaurus, simulating a bite at the middle four teeth. Muscle forces
have been scaled so that the total applied force/surface area equals that
of Camarasaurus (the "structural
comparison").plateosaurus_scaled_mid4.inpPlateosaurus scaled
posterior biteAbaqus input file of a finite element model of the cranium
of Plateosaurus, simulating a bite at the posteriormost four teeth. Muscle
forces have been scaled so that the total applied force/surface area
equals that of Camarasaurus (the "structural
comparison").plateosaurus_scaled_post4.inpPlateosaurus mandible
scaled anterior biteAbaqus input file of a finite element model of the
mandible of Plateosaurus, simulating a bite at the anteriormost four
teeth. Muscle forces have been scaled so that the total applied
force/surface area equals that of Camarasaurus (the "structural
comparison").plateosaurus_mandible_scaled_ant4.inpPlateosaurus
mandible scaled middle biteAbaqus input file of a finite element model of
the mandible of Plateosaurus, simulating a bite at the middle four teeth.
Muscle forces have been scaled so that the total applied force/surface
area equals that of Camarasaurus (the "structural
comparison").plateosaurus_mandible_scaled_mid4.inpPlateosaurus
mandible scaled posterior biteAbaqus input file of a finite element model
of the mandible of Plateosaurus, simulating a bite at the posteriormost
four teeth. Muscle forces have been scaled so that the total applied
force/surface area equals that of Camarasaurus (the "structural
comparison").plateosaurus_mandible_scaled_post4.inpPlateosaurus
mandible scaled unilateral anterior biteAbaqus input file of a finite
element model of the mandible of Plateosaurus, simulating an unilateral
bite at the anterior biting position. Muscle forces have been scaled so
that the total applied force/surface area equals that of Camarasaurus (the
"structural
comparison").plateosaurus_mandible_scaled_unilateral_ant4.inpPlateosaurus mandible scaled unilateral middle biteAbaqus input file of a finite element model of the mandible of Plateosaurus, simulating an unilateral bite at the middle biting position. Muscle forces have been scaled so that the total applied force/surface area equals that of Camarasaurus (the "structural comparison").plateosaurus_mandible_scaled_unilateral_mid4.inpPlateosaurus mandible scaled unilateral posterior biteAbaqus input file of a finite element model of the mandible of Plateosaurus, simulating an unilateral bite at the posterior biting position. Muscle forces have been scaled so that the total applied force/surface area equals that of Camarasaurus (the "structural comparison").plateosaurus_mandible_scaled_unilateral_post4.inpCamarasaurus anterior biteAbaqus input file of a finite element model of the cranium of Camarasaurus, simulating a bite at the anteriormost four teeth.camarasaurus_ant4.inpCamarasaurus middle biteAbaqus input file of a finite element model of the cranium of Camarasaurus, simulating a bite at the middle four teeth.camarasaurus_mid4.inpCamarasaurus posterior biteAbaqus input file of a finite element model of the cranium of Camarasaurus, simulating a bite at the posteriormost four teeth.camarasaurus_post4.inpCamarasaurus dentineAbaqus input file of a finite element model of the cranium of Camarasaurus, with the material properties of dentine assigned to the teeth. This formed part of the sensitivity analyses testing the significance of the material properties of the teeth on results.camarasaurus_dentine.inpCamarasaurus enamelAbaqus input file of a finite element model of the cranium of Camarasaurus, with the material properties of enamel assigned to the teeth. This formed part of the sensitivity analyses testing the significance of the material properties of the teeth on results.camarasaurus_enamel.inpCamarasaurus mandible anterior biteAbaqus input file of a finite element model of the mandible of Camarasaurus, simulating a bilateral bite at the anteriormost four teeth.camarasaurus_mandible_ant4.inpCamarasaurus mandible middle biteAbaqus input file of a finite element model of the mandible of Camarasaurus, simulating a bilateral bite at the middle four teeth.camarasaurus_mandible_mid4.inpCamarasaurus mandible posterior biteAbaqus input file of a finite element model of the mandible of Camarasaurus, simulating a bilateral bite at the posteriormost four teeth.camarasaurus_mandible_post4.inpCamarasaurus mandible dentineAbaqus input file of a finite element model of the mandible of Camarasaurus, with the material properties of dentine assigned to the teeth. This formed part of the sensitivity analyses testing the influence of the material properties of the teeth on results.camarasaurus_mandible_dentine.inpCamarasaurus mandible enamelAbaqus input file of a finite element model of the mandible of Camarasaurus, with the material properties of enamel assigned to the teeth. This formed part of the sensitivity analyses testing the influence of the material properties of the teeth on results.camarasaurus_mandible_enamel.inpCamarasaurus mandible unilateral anterior biteAbaqus input file of a finite-element model of the mandible of Camarasaurus, simulating an unilateral bite at the posterior biting position.camarasaurus_mandible_unilateral_ant4.inpCamarasaurus mandible unilateral middle biteAbaqus input file of a finite-element model of the mandible of Camarasaurus, simulating an unilateral bite at the middle biting position.camarasaurus_mandible_unilateral_mid.inpCamarasaurus mandible unilateral posterior biteAbaqus input file of a finite-element model of the mandible of Camarasaurus, simulating an unilateral bite at the posterior biting position.camarasaurus_mandible_unilateral_post.inp
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