10.5061/DRYAD.73F23
Cizauskas, Carrie A.
Princeton University
University of California, Berkeley
Bellan, Steven E.
The University of Texas at Austin
University of California, Berkeley
Turner, Wendy C.
University of California, Berkeley
University of Oslo
Vance, Russell E.
University of California, Berkeley
Getz, Wayne M.
University of KwaZulu-Natal
University of California, Berkeley
Data from: Frequent and seasonally variable sublethal anthrax infections
are accompanied by short-lived immunity in an endemic system
Dryad
dataset
2014
Bacillus anthracis
seroconversion dynamics
Loxodonta africana
Microbiology
ecological immunology
microparasites
Antidorcas marsupialis
Endoparasites
Equus quagga
antibody persistence
serology
host-parasite interactions
2021-07-05T00:00:00Z
en
https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.12207
10274 bytes
1
CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0) Public Domain Dedication
1. Few studies have examined host-pathogen interactions in wildlife from
an immunological perspective, particularly in the context of seasonal and
longitudinal dynamics. In addition, though most ecological immunology
studies employ serological antibody assays, endpoint titer determination
is usually based on subjective criteria and needs to be made more
objective. 2. Despite the fact that anthrax is an ancient and emerging
zoonotic infectious disease found worldwide, its natural ecology is not
well understood. In particular, little is known about the adaptive immune
responses of wild herbivore hosts against Bacillus anthracis. 3. Working
in the natural anthrax system of Etosha National Park, Namibia, we
collected 154 serum samples from plains zebra (Equus quagga), 21 from
springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis), and 45 from African elephants
(Loxodonta africana) over 2-3 years, resampling individuals when possible
for seasonal and longitudinal comparisons. We used enzyme-linked
immunosorbent assays to measure anti-anthrax antibody titers and developed
three increasingly conservative models to determine endpoint titers with
more rigorous, objective mensuration. 4. Between 52-87% of zebra, 0-15% of
springbok, and 3-52% of elephants had measurable anti-anthrax antibody
titers, depending on the model used. While the ability of elephants and
springbok to mount anti-anthrax adaptive immune responses is still
equivocal, our results indicate that zebra in ENP often survive sublethal
anthrax infections, encounter most B. anthracis in the wet season, and can
partially booster their immunity to B. anthracis. 5. Thus, rather than
being solely a lethal disease, anthrax often occurs as a sublethal
infection in some susceptible hosts. Though we found that adaptive
immunity to anthrax wanes rapidly, subsequent and frequent sublethal B.
anthracis infections cause maturation of anti-anthrax immunity. By
triggering host immune responses, these common sublethal infections may
act as immunomodulators and affect population dynamics through indirect
immunological and co-infection effects. 6. In addition, with our three
endpoint titer models, we introduce more mensuration rigor into
serological antibody assays, even under the often-restrictive conditions
that come with adapting laboratory immunology methods to wild systems.
With these methods we identified significantly more zebras responding
immunologically to anthrax than have previous studies using less
comprehensive titer analyses.
Anti-PA Titers for Equus quaggaAnti-anthrax (anti-protective antigen
toxin) antibody titers for wild plains zebra immobilized and sampled over
1-5 seasons in Etosha National Park, Namibia. id=animal capture ID.
titer=anti-PA titer; the titer is the highest dilution in the titration
series for which the mean sample optical density (OD) for that dilution is
greater than the mean negative control OD titration curve from all plates
(dilution is as 1:dilution; e.g. 1024 is a 1:1024 dilution).
titerDUP=anti-PA titer for which the titer is the last dilution at which
the mean sample OD is greater than the mean negative control OD buffered
by a 95% confidence interval determined by the inter-duplicate error at
that dilution, across all samples. titerNCONT=anti-PA titer for which the
titer is the last dilution at which the mean sample OD is greater than the
mean negative control OD buffered by a 95% confidence interval determined
by the inter-negative control error at that dilution, across all samples.
plate=plate identifier (date and plate number on that day).
ncont=identifier of the negative control sample used.EQtitersPA.csvAnti-PA
Titers for Antidorcas marsupialisAnti-anthrax (anti-protective antigen
toxin) antibody titers for wild springbok immobilized and sampled over 1-2
seasons in Etosha National Park, Namibia. id=animal capture ID.
titer=anti-PA titer; the titer is the highest dilution in the titration
series for which the mean sample optical density (OD) for that dilution is
greater than the mean negative control OD titration curve from all plates
(dilution is as 1:dilution; e.g. 1024 is a 1:1024 dilution).
titerDUP=anti-PA titer for which the titer is the last dilution at which
the mean sample OD is greater than the mean negative control OD buffered
by a 95% confidence interval determined by the inter-duplicate error at
that dilution, across all samples. titerNCONT=anti-PA titer for which the
titer is the last dilution at which the mean sample OD is greater than the
mean negative control OD buffered by a 95% confidence interval determined
by the inter-negative control error at that dilution, across all samples.
plate=plate identifier (date and plate number on that day).
ncont=identifier of the negative control sample used.AMtitersPA.csvAnti-PA
Titers for Loxodonta africanaAnti-anthrax (anti-protective antigen toxin)
antibody titers for wild African elephants immobilized and sampled over
1-2 seasons in Etosha National Park, Namibia. id=animal capture ID.
titer=anti-PA titer; the titer is the highest dilution in the titration
series for which the mean sample optical density (OD) for that dilution is
greater than the mean negative control OD titration curve from all plates
(dilution is as 1:dilution; e.g. 1024 is a 1:1024 dilution).
titerDUP=anti-PA titer for which the titer is the last dilution at which
the mean sample OD is greater than the mean negative control OD buffered
by a 95% confidence interval determined by the inter-duplicate error at
that dilution, across all samples. titerNCONT=anti-PA titer for which the
titer is the last dilution at which the mean sample OD is greater than the
mean negative control OD buffered by a 95% confidence interval determined
by the inter-negative control error at that dilution, across all samples.
plate=plate identifier (date and plate number on that day).
ncont=identifier of the negative control sample used.LAtitersPA.csv
Namibia
Etosha National Park